May 5, 2021
###### Quantitative and Qualitative
May 5, 2021

Chapter 9   Electrons in Atoms and the Periodic Table

9.1   True/False Questions

1) When the elements are arranged in order of increasing number of protons, certain sets of properties recur periodically.

2) The early scientists who developed the quantum-mechanical model were bewildered by the model and it altered our fundamental view of matter.

3) Light is a type of matter.

4) Light travels through space at a speed of 3.00 × 108 m/s.

5) A red shirt appears red to our eyes because the shirt absorbs the red wavelengths of visible light.

6) A particle of light is called a packet.

7) A photon represents the mass of a single particle of light.

8) Blue light travels at a faster speed than red light.

9) A photon of red light contains the same amount of energy as a photon of blue light.

10) The shorter the wavelength of light, the more energy it has.

11) Wavelength of visible light determines color.

12) The most energetic photons are gamma rays.

13) Visible light makes up the largest portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

14) Photons of ultraviolet radiation contain more energy than do photons of violet visible light.

15) X-rays damage biological molecules.

16) Ultraviolet light produces suntans and sunburns.

17) The heat you feel when you place your hand near a hot object is ultraviolet radiation.

18) In order for a substance to be heated in a microwave, it must contain water.

19) The great success of the Bohr model of the atom is that it predicted the emission spectrum lines of multi-electronic elements like helium.

20) Bohr showed that the emission spectrum of hydrogen was continuous with no interruption across the entire visible wavelength range.

21) Each element produces its own unique and distinctive emission spectrum.

22) An emission spectrum results when light emitted by glowing gas is passed through a prism.

23) When an atom absorbs energy, it often re-emits that energy as heat.

24) The energy of an electron orbit is quantized.

25) The energy of each Bohr orbit increases with increasing value of “n,” but levels become more closely spaced as “n” increases.

26) Electrons behave like particles and we can describe their exact paths.

27) An orbital is a probability map showing exactly where an electron can be found in an atom.

28) The higher the principal quantum number, the lower the orbital energy.

29) The possible values for the principal quantum numbers are: .

30) The subshells of the orbital are represented by the possible letters: s, p, d, or f.

31) A principal shell with a value of n=3 would contain s, p, d, and f orbitals.

32) The subshells s, p, d, and f all have the same energy as long as they are in the same principal shell.

33) The ground state is when an electron in an atom is excited into the lowest possible vacant orbital.

34) The correct electron configuration for fluorine is: 1s22s22p5.

35) Transition metal elements always contain at least one “d” block electron.

36) The Pauli exclusion principle states that orbitals may hold no more than two electrons of identical spins.

37) The orbital diagram for fluorine shows 1 unpaired electron in a p orbital.

38) The correct electron configuration for magnesium is: 1s22s22p63s3.

39) The element manganese (symbol = Mn) has five valence electrons.

40) Bromine has 17 valence electrons.

41) Bromine has 28 core electrons.

42) The elements will lose or gain electrons as needed to have an electron configuration that matches a noble gas.

43) The ionization energy of lithium is higher than that of fluorine.

44) The atomic size of lithium is larger than the atomic size of nitrogen.

45) Based on relative location on the periodic table, a carbon atom is larger in atomic size than a phosphorous atom.

46) Based on relative location on the periodic table, vanadium (symbol = V) is expected to have more metallic character than selenium (symbol = Se).

9.2   Multiple Choice Questions

1) Which of the statements about light is FALSE?

A) Light travels through space at a speed of 3.00 × 108 m/s.

B) Light travels much faster than sound.

C) A packet of light energy is called a photon.

D) A characteristic feature of light that determines its color is its wavelength.

E) All of the above statements are true.

2) The distance between adjacent wave crests is called:

A) wavelength.

B) frequency.

C) trough.

D) nu.

E) none of the above

3) The number of cycles of a wave that passes a stationary point in one second is called its:

A) wavelength.

B) frequency.

C) crest.

D) trough.

E) none of the above

4) Which among the following statements is TRUE?

A) The wavelength of light is inversely related to its energy.

B) As the energy increases, the frequency of radiation decreases.

C) As the wavelength increases, the frequency also increases.

D) Red light has a shorter wavelength than violet light.

E) none of the above

5) How are wavelength and frequency of light related?

A) Wavelength is one-half of the frequency.

B) Wavelength is double the frequency.

C) Wavelength increases as frequency increases.

D) Wavelength increases as the frequency decreases.

E) Wavelength is independent of frequency.

6) Which color of the visible spectrum has the shortest wavelength (400 nm)?

A) red

B) orange

C) green

D) violet

E) yellow

7) Which color of the visible spectrum has the longest wavelength (750 nm)?

A) red

B) orange

C) green

D) violet

E) yellow

8) Which color of the visible spectrum has photons with the most energy?

A) red

B) orange

C) green

D) violet

E) yellow

9) What is the correct order of the electromagnetic spectrum from shortest wavelength to longest?

10) Which form of electromagnetic radiation has the shortest wavelength?

B) Microwaves

C) X-rays

D) Gamma Rays

11) Which form of electromagnetic radiation has the longest wavelength?

B) Microwaves

C) X-rays

D) Gamma Rays

12) Which form of electromagnetic radiation has the highest frequency?

B) Microwaves

C) X-rays

D) Gamma Rays

13) Which form of electromagnetic radiation has the lowest frequency?

B) Microwaves

C) X-rays

D) Gamma Rays

14) Which form of electromagnetic radiation has photons with the highest energy?

B) Microwaves

C) X-rays

D) Gamma Rays

15) Which form of electromagnetic radiation has photons with the lowest energy?

B) Microwaves

C) X-rays

D) Gamma Rays

16) What happens to an atom when it absorbs energy?

A) The atom stores the energy for later use.

B) The extra energy increases the speed of the electrons in their orbitals.

C) The atom re-emits the energy as heat.

D) The atom re-emits the energy as light.

E) none of the above

17) When sunlight is passed through a prism, what is observed?

A) continuous spectrum

B) nothing

C) bright spots and lines

D) white light

E) none of the above

18) When neon light is passed through a prism, what is observed?

A) continuous spectrum

B) nothing

C) bright spots or lines

D) white light

E) none of the above

19) Which statement below does NOT follow the Bohr Model?

A) When energy is absorbed by atoms, the electrons are promoted to higher-energy orbits.

B) When an atom emits light, electrons fall from a higher orbit into a lower orbit.

C) The energy emitted from a relaxing electron can have any wavelength.

D) Electrons exist in specific, quantized orbits.

E) none of the above

20) Which of the following statements about the quantum-mechanical model is FALSE?

A) Orbitals are a probability map of finding electrons.

B) Electrons do not behave as particles.

C) Orbitals are specific paths electrons follow.

D) Electron paths cannot be described exactly.

E) All of the above are correct statements.

21) The principal quantum number (n):

A) specifies the 3-D shape of the orbital.

B) specifies the subshell of the orbital.

C) specifies the maximum number of electrons.

D) specifies the principal shell of the orbital.

E) none of the above

22) The subshell letter:

A) specifies the 3-D shape of the orbital.

B) specifies the principal quantum number of the orbital.

C) specifies the maximum number of electrons.

D) specifies the principal shell of the orbital.

E) none of the above

23) How many subshells are there in the n = 4 principal shell?

A) 1

B) 2

C) 3

D) 4

E) not enough information

24) How many subshells are there in the n = 2 principal shell?

A) 1

B) 2

C) 3

D) 4

E) not enough information

25) The n = ________ principal shell is the lowest that may contain a d-subshell.

A) 1

B) 2

C) 3

D) 4

E) not enough information

26) Which subshell letter corresponds to a spherical orbital?

A) s

B) p

C) d

D) f

E) not enough information

27) Which subshell letter corresponds to a 4-leaf clover orbital pattern?

A) s

B) p

C) d

D) f

E) not enough information

28) Which statement is NOT true about “p” orbitals?

A) A subshell contains three “p” orbitals.

B) These orbitals are shaped like dumbbells.

C) A 3p orbital has a higher energy than a 2p orbital.

D) All three of these statements are true.

E) none of the above

29) The “d” subshell can hold a maximum of ________ electrons.

A) 2

B) 5

C) 6

D) 10

E) none of the above

30) How many electrons can exist in an orbital?

A) 1

B) 2

C) 3

D) 4

E) none of the above

31) The lowest energy orbital in the quantum-mechanical model is the:

A) zero orbital.

B) 1a orbital.

C) 1p orbital.

D) 1s orbital.

E) none of the above

32) “When filling orbitals of equal energy, electrons fill them singly first with parallel spins.” This is known as:

A) Hund’s rule.

B) Pauli exclusion principle.

C) Bohr’s model.

D) Ground state.

E) none of the above

33) The subshell that has three orbitals and can hold up to six electrons is the:

A) s subshell

B) p subshell

C) d subshell

D) f subshell

E) none of the above

34) The subshell that has five orbitals and can hold up to ten electrons is the:

A) d subshell

B) f subshell

C) s subshell

D) p subshell

E) none of the above

35) Which orbital would the electron of a ground state hydrogen atom occupy?

A) 1s

B) 2p

C) 0s

D) 1p

E) none of the above

36) How many electrons are unpaired in the orbitals of carbon?

A) 12

B) 6

C) 4

D) 2

E) none of the above

37) How many electrons are unpaired in the orbitals of nitrogen?

A) 14

B) 5

C) 9

D) 3

E) none of the above

38) An accepted abbreviation format is to write an electron configuration that includes a noble gas symbol in brackets. If you were writing an electron configuration for a bromine atom, which elemental symbol would you place in the bracket?

A) He

B) Ne

C) Ar

D) Kr

E) Xe

39) Which element is represented by the electron configuration 1s22s22p2?

A) C

B) He

C) Be

D) O

E) none of the above

40) What is the electron configuration for Kr?

A) 1s22s22p63s23p43d104s24p6

B) 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d24p6

C) 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p6

D) 1s22s22p63s23p24s23d104p6

E) none of the above

41) What is the electron configuration for Ga?

A) 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p6

B) 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p1

C) 1s22s22p63s23p53d104s24p1

D) 1s22s22p63s23p64s24d104p1

E) none of the above

42) What is the electron configuration for P?

A) [Ar]3s23p64s23d104p3

B) [Ne]1s21p62s22p3

C) [Ne]3s23p3

D) [Ar]3s23p3

E) none of the above

43) Which one of the following is the correct orbital diagram for nitrogen?

A)   ↑↓

B)

C)

D)   ↑↓

E) none of the above

44) The element with a completely filled p-subshell is:

A) Na.

B) Al.

C) P.

D) Ar.

E) none of the above

45) What is the element in which at least one electron is in the d-orbital?

A) Ar

B) K

C) Ca

D) Sc

E) none of the above

46) How many core electrons are in a chlorine atom?

A) 1

B) 17

C) 10

D) 7

E) none of the above

47) How many valence electrons are in a chlorine atom?

A) 1

B) 17

C) 10

D) 7

E) none of the above

48) What do the alkali metals all have in common?

A) They all undergo similar reactions.

B) They all have similar physical properties.

C) They all form +1 ions.

D) They all have the same number of valence electrons.

E) all of the above

49) Which of the following elements has the electron configuration of 3s23p4 in its outermost shell?

A) Al

B) Si

C) S

D) Cl

E) none of the above

50) Chlorine and bromine have very similar chemical properties. This is best explained by the fact that both elements:

A) are gases.

B) are in period 3 of the Periodic Table.

C) have the same number of valence electrons.

D) have equal number of protons and electrons.

E) none of the above

51) Consider the electron configuration of the ion to determine which ion shown below has an incorrect ionic charge?

A) Al3-

B) Se2-

C) Rb+

D) Ba2+

E) none of the above

52) Which one of the following species has the electron configuration of 1s22s22p6?

1.  Na+

2.  O2-

3.  F

A) 1 and 2 only

B) 1 and 3 only

C) 2 and 3 only

D) All of 1, 2, and 3

E) Neither 1, 2, or 3

53) If the electron configuration of a ground state potassium atom is 1s22s22p63s1, the electron configuration of the potassium cation (K+) would be:

A) 1s22s22p63s2

B) 1s22s22p6

C) 1s22s22p63s1

D) 1s12s22p63s1

E) none of the above

54) Choose the answer that best completes the following statement: When an aluminum atom reacts so as to attain a noble gas electron configuration,

A) the atom gains five electrons.

B) the result is a configuration of 1s22s22p6.

C) a 3- ion forms.

D) the noble gas configuration of argon is achieved.

E) none of the above

55) The size of an atom generally increases:

A) down a group and from right to left across a period.

B) up a group and from left to right across a period.

C) down a group and from left to right across a period.

D) up a group and from right to left across a period.

E) up a group and diagonally across the Periodic Table.

56) Which of the following elements has the lowest ionization energy?

A) Rb

B) Na

C) C

D) F

E) He

57) Which of the following elements has the highest ionization energy?

A) Ba

B) Ca

C) Al

D) Cl

E) Ne

58) Which of the following atoms is the largest?

A) Li

B) Na

C) K

D) Rb

E) Cs

59) Which of the following atoms is the smallest?

A) Li

B) Be

C) B

D) O

E) Ne

60) Which of the following atoms has the least metallic character?

A) Li

B) Na

C) K

D) Rb

E) Cs

61) Which of the following atoms has the greatest metallic character?

A) Cs

B) Be

C) Cu

D) Ti

E) Au

9.3   Algorithmic Questions

1) Which color of visible light has a wavelength in between that of blue and violet light?

A) green

B) yellow

C) red

D) indigo

E) none of the above

2) Which one of the following types of electromagnetic radiation has a higher energy per photon than visible radiation?

A) microwave

B) ultraviolet

D) infrared

E) none of the above

3) How many core electrons are in a ground state atom of arsenic?

A) 15

B) 33

C) 28

D) 5

E) none of the above

4) Which of the atoms represented below is the largest in size?

A) N

B) As

C) Sb

D) Bi

E) P