Appraising the Evidence Guidelines
October 12, 2018
Research Method and Design Appropriateness
October 12, 2018

For your final Writer’s notebook in this course, you will create an outline for the argument essay. Use one of the outline templates provided in the previous lesson “Basic Argument Essay Structure.”  You can then use the outline to help you focus and organize the first draft of your argument.

Reasons Followed By Counterarguments
I. Introduction
Necessary Background
Thesis
II. First Reason
Topic Sentence
Evidence & Explanation
Wrap-up / connect to the thesis
III. Second Reason (same as above)
IV. Continue with more reasons
V.  Refute Counterarguments (Counterargument
paragraphs can go anywhere, but they often go
toward the end)
VI. Conclusion
Might include a call to action
Or a statement of the implications
Reason/Counterargument
I. Introduction
Necessary Background
Thesis
II. First Reason
Topic Sentence
Evidence
Wrap-up
III. Refute counterarguments (if necessary)
IV. Second reason (same as II.)
V.  Refute counterarguments (if necessary)
VI. Continue with this pattern
VII. Conclusion
Might include a call to action
Or a statement of implications
Reason/Counterargument
I. Introduction
Necessary Background
Thesis
II. First Reason
Topic Sentence
Evidence
Wrap-up
III. Refute counterarguments (if necessary)
IV. Second reason (same as II.)
V.  Refute counterarguments (if necessary)
VI. Continue with this pattern
VII. Conclusion
Might include a call to action
Or a statement of implications

Genetically Modified Foods
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), genetically modified foods are those that are obtained from organisms with modified genetic material. Genetic modification involves artificially introducing a desired gene from a different organism into another organism (World Health Organization). Different people have varied viewpoints regarding genetically modified organisms. Those supporting this scientific practice give reasons including, but not limited to, food security, reduction of pesticide use, improved food taste, and enhanced health. Those against genetic modification of foods argue that the practice leads to environmental and health risks, big GMO companies “eating” small scale farmers, and the fact that natural foods have a better taste. Genetic modification is a subject that continues to raise a lot of controversy among different groups of people.
ARGUMENTS FOR GENETIC MODIFICATION OF FOOD
The following arguments have been used to make the idea of genetically modifying food a plausible one.
Food Security. It is expected that by 2050, the world population would hit 9 billion. This means that food production needs to increase so as to meet the demand. Since the size of land for farming is decreasing, genetic modification remains the only option to meet the food demand for the growing population (Cook).
Genetic Modification makes crops stronger and reduces use of pesticides. Through genetic modification, scientists are able to introduce pest resistance genes into food crops. This means that farmers will use little or no pesticides, thus reduced fuel emissions and decreased global warming.
Improved taste. Genetic modification can be done to improve food texture and flavor. For instance, genetically modified corn is sweeter. The technology is also known to produce pepper that is spicier. The flavors of several other foods have been enhanced through genetic modification.
Boosted health. Biotech is known to lead to the production of healthier foods. For instance, genetically modified lettuce has a higher concentration of nutrients and GMO tomatoes have a higher composition of oxidants which help inhibit heart disease or cancer.
ARGUMENTS AGAINST GENETIC MODIFICATION OF FOOD
Despite the arguments made to substantiate the practice of producing GM foods, there are some people who do not buy into the whole idea. Some argue that the benefits of biotechnology is a fabricated story meant to enrich those in the business.
Environmental and health risk. Seeds created through biotechnology are capable of forming pesticide-resistant weeds through cross pollination (Goldstein and Goldstein). These weeds threaten the lives of wild plants other crops. Interfering with crop genes is known to cause defects in animals. For instance, use of biotechnology is known to have led to birth defects and reduction of butterfly populations in the U.S. Mixing up genes of different crops makes them more allergic to people suffering from such. Genetically modified foods could result in antibiotic-resistant diseases, thus reducing medicine effectiveness.
Big companies “eating” small farmers. Farmers who are too much dependent on GMO crops are under the control of businesses owning the patents and thus setting the prices as they wish. Such companies use terminator technologies force farmers to continue buying seeds from GMO companies.
Natural crops tastes better. Food crops which have not been modified taste better and have more nutritional value than genetically modified ones.

 

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