Employee interests in the light of human resource management concepts
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Performance Management and Appraisal System
HRMT600 | LESSON EIGHT: REVIEW FOR FINAL EXAM
Introduction
Topics to be covered:
· Overview of highlights and key words from previous lessons
This course has provided an overview of the history of human resource management (HRM) and discussions of key issues in HRM such as the importance of orientation programs, how to handle processes such as job analysis and performance management, and the role of HRM professionals in labor relations with unions. This lesson will help you prepare for your final exam by providing a review of highlights from the previous lessons in this course, including the key terms presented in each lesson.
Lesson 1: Fundamentals of HRM and Strategic Implications
In the 1800s, HRM was not a recognized function or profession, and organizations did not follow any established norms that could be regarded as best practices for HRM. Rather, organizations strove to manage labor in a way that treated workers fairly while encouraging them to be as productive as possible to support the organization in its efforts to maximize profits. Over the years, HRM evolved and developed as a function in organizations that handles staffing, retention, development, adjustment, and change management. Today, organizations must have a well-planned and managed HRM function if they wish to succeed. HRM professionals are a vital part of an organization’s management, helping organizations handle various activities, including the challenges of competing globally.
Key Terms from Lesson 1
ADJUSTMENT
CHANGE MANAGEMENT
DEVELOPMENT
EMPLOYMENT MANAGEMENT
GLOBALIZATION
HRM SYSTEM
HUMAN RELATIONS
HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
HUMAN RESOURCES
INDUSTRIAL DEMOCRACY
INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY
INDUSTRIAL WELFARE WORK
LABOR PROBLEM
LABOR PROCESS
LABOR POWER
LABOR TIME
PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT
RETENTION
SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT
STAFFING
TECHNICAL SYSTEM
VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE
Lesson 2: The Legal and Ethical Context of HRM
The practice of HRM is subject to various laws and regulations that HRM managers must follow as they deal with personnel issues, including the recruitment, hiring, and firing of employees. In addition to abiding by legal requirements, HRM managers also have an obligation to practice good ethics as they handle an organization’s personnel issues. This includes respecting employees’ rights and ensuring that disciplinary actions comply with legal requirements, as well as ethical considerations, including justice.
Key Terms from Lesson 2
ADVERSE IMPACT
AFFIRMATIVE ACTION
AGE DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT ACT
CONTRACTUAL EMPLOYMENT
DISCRIMINATION
DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE
EMPLOYEE VOICE
EMPLOYMENT-AT-WILL
EQUAL PAY ACT
ETHICAL DILEMMAS
FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT (FLSA)
FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT (FMLA)
HARASSMENT
INFORMATIONAL JUSTICE
INTERACTIONAL JUSTICE
JUSTICE
ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIORS
PREGNANCY DISCRIMINATION ACT
PROCEDURAL JUSTICE
REVERSE DISCRIMINATION
SEXUAL HARASSMENT
STRUCTURAL JUSTICE
TERMINATION
TITLE I AND TITLE V OF THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT OF 1990 (ADA)
TITLE II OF THE GENETIC INFORMATION NONDISCRIMINATION ACT OF 2008 (GINA)
TITLE VII OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT
UNEQUAL TREATMENT
WORKERS’ COMPENSATION LAWS
Lesson 3: Staffing the Organization
One of the primary responsibilities of HRM is to attract and recruit qualified workers to fill positions within an organization, ensuring the organization is adequately staffed. This begins with conducting a job analysis, job descriptions, and job specifications for each position within an organization. The strategies that HRM professionals use for recruitment and selection may vary depending upon factors such as the type of position to be filled, the organization’s environment, the nature of competition from other organizations, and the physical location of the organization.
Key Terms from Lesson 3
ABILITIES REQUIRED
BEHAVIOR
CREDENTIALS/EXPERIENCE
CRITICAL INCIDENTS
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
ESSENTIAL FUNCTIONS
INFORMATION INPUT
INTERVIEW
JOB ANALYSIS
JOB CONTEXT
JOB DESCRIPTION
JOB PERFORMANCE
JOB SPECIFICATION
KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED
LABOR MARGIN
MENTAL PROCESSES
OBSERVATION
OTHER JOB CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
RELATIONSHIPS
SKILLS REQUIRED
STAFFING
STRUCTURED QUESTIONNAIRES
TASKS
WORK OUTPUT
Lesson 4: Employee Training and Development
Once an employee is hired, he or she will need orientation followed by other socialization processes, as well as training and development. Training can be a costly investment but it also yields benefits that generally make the costs worthwhile. HRM professionals should know the six Es of training, which are the reasons organizations should provide training to employees: engage, educate, enhance, empower, energize and enlighten.
Key Terms from Lesson 4
CODE OF CONDUCT
CODE OF ETHICS
DEVELOPMENT
GOALS
MENTORSHIP
MISSION
OBJECTIVES
ONBOARDING
ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
ORIENTATION
PERFORMANCE AND SOCIAL FEEDBACK
RELATIONSHIP BUILDING
SOCIAL CAPITAL
SOCIAL FACILITATION
SOCIAL-ORIENTED INFORMATION SEEKING
SOCIALIZATION
SYNERGY
TASK-ORIENTED INFORMATION SEEKING
TRAINING
VISION
Lesson 5: Performance Management and Appraisal System
To establish standards for behavior and hold employees accountable to those standards, organizations usually have a system of performance management. An important part of this system is a process that evaluates and appraises employee behavior and performance, which can be used to encourage employees to meet organization’s expectations for employee behavior and performance. When involved in a performance management system, HRM professionals must be able to define, facilitate, and encourage performance. They also must use appropriate methods to evaluate employee performance. Some of their options include management by objectives, critical incident diary, behaviorally anchored rating scale, graphic rating scale, ranking, paired comparison, forced distribution, and 360-degree evaluation. Regardless of how they approach the evaluation process, they must ensure it is reliable and valid, and they must make every effort to avoid the common errors made on performance appraisals.
Key Terms from Lesson 5
ABILITIES
ABSOLUTE METHODS
ATTITUDE
ATTRIBUTION
BENCHMARK
CENTRAL TENDENCY ERROR
COMMUNICATION
COMPARATIVE METHODS
CONSISTENCY
CONTRIBUTION
DEVELOPMENT DECISIONS
DISCRETIONARY EFFORT
EFFECTIVENESS
EFFORT
EFFORT BARGAIN
EVALUATIVE DECISIONS
HALO ERROR
INTELLECTUAL ABILITIES
LENIENCY ERROR
LOW-DIFFERENTIATION ERROR
PERCEPTION
PERFORMANCE
PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
PERFORMANCE DEFINITION
PERFORMANCE ENCOURAGEMENT
PERFORMANCE FACILITATION
PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT
PERSONAL BIAS ERROR
PHYSICAL ABILITIES
PRODUCTIVITY
RACE AND CULTURE
RECENCY ERROR
RELEVANCE
RELIABLE
SELF-AWARENESS ABILITIES
STRICTNESS ERROR
TOTAL PERSON CONCEPT
VALID
VOICE
Lesson 6: Compensation and Benefits
To be successful at work, employees must be motivated and engaged. Compensation and fringe benefits can help motivate employees. Organizations have a variety of options when deciding the types of pay systems they will implement and the fringe benefits they will offer. To make these decisions, they should understand what motivates their employees and provide the types of compensation and fringe benefits that have value to employees. As part of this process, organizations must be aware of whether individual employees are exempt or non-exempt.
Key Terms from Lesson 6
BONUS PLANS
COMMISSION
COMPENSATION
COMPETENCY-BASED PAY SYSTEM
EMPLOYEE SERVICES
ENGAGEMENT
EXTERNAL EQUITY
FRINGE BENEFITS
GAIN-SHARING
HOURLY WAGES OR DAYWORK
HYGIENE FACTORS
INDIVIDUAL EQUITY
INTERNAL EQUITY
MARKET-BASED PAY SYSTEM
MOTIVATION
MOTIVATOR FACTORS
NEEDS-BASED THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
PAY COMPRESSION
PAY-FOR-PERFORMANCE SYSTEM
PAYMENTS FOR TIME NOT WORKED
PIECEWORK
PROCESS-BASED THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
PROFIT-SHARING
SALARY
SECURITY AND HEALTH
STOCK OPTIONS
UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS
WORKERS COMPENSATION
Lesson 7: Organized Labor
Many organizations employ individuals who are members of labor unions. When HRM professionals work in such organizations, they must understand labor unions and how this affects labor relations. In addition, they must understand the collective bargaining process and the role they are expected to perform as part of this process. They also must understand legislation affecting labor relations, including right to work laws and how these affect employment processes in states that have such laws.
Key Terms from Lesson 7
AGENCY SHOP
ARBITRATION
BARGAINING ZONE
BOYCOTT
CLOSED-SHOP AGREEMENTS
COLLECTIVE BARGAINING
CRAFT UNIONS
DISTRIBUTIVE BARGAINING
FEATHERBEDDING
FREE RIDERS
GRIEVANCE
INDUSTRIAL UNIONS
INTEGRATIVE BARGAINING
LABOR CONTRACT
MEDIATION
OPEN-SHOP AGREEMENT
PICKETING
PIECEWORK
RIGHT-TO-WORK LAWS
SHIFT DIFFERENTIAL
STRIKE
UNION SECURITY CLAUSE
UNION SHOP
UNIONS
YELLOW-DOG CONTRACT
Conclusion
HRM professionals have a myriad of responsibilities, and they must be knowledgeable in a variety of topics and issues to do their jobs well. This includes being knowledgeable about legal requirements, as well as other issues such as how to motivate employees and how to handle processes such as collective bargaining. HRM is a challenging profession. It also is a critical function that is an absolute necessity if an organization is to be successful.
Course Overview
This course has introduced you to some of the basic, but also most critical, aspects of HRM. By being knowledgeable about these areas, understanding their importance and how to handle them, you can be a successful HRM professional.
References
Banfield, P., & Kay, R. (2008). Introduction to human resource management. New York: Oxford University Press.
Cascio, W. F. (2010). Managing human resources: Productivity, quality of work life, profits, (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Nickels, W. G., McHugh, J M., & McHugh, S. M. (2013). Understanding business, (10th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin.
Schermerhorn, J. R. Jr., Hunt, J. G., & Osborn, R. N. . (2005). Organizational behavior, (9th ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
York, K. M. (2010). Applied human resource management: Strategic issues and experiential exercises. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, Inc.
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