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Note: The answer for subjective question must be in your own words.Make sure to write the formulae wherever it is necessary.Plagiarism is not acceptedFind the attached articles.       1.   Compare any 5 operation management strategic decisions between Toyota and Walmart based on articles attached (10 marks)                                                                                                               ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________A Laundry shopis tracking their workers, water bills and consumables on a weekly basis. The data from the last 5 weeks are shown in the table. (7.5 marks)A.What is multifactor productivity for each weekif workers average $35 per hour, water costs $2 per thousand gallons and consumables are $2.5 per ounce? Write the formula  ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________  B. What will be the change in productivity between week 2 and 4? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Sara is currently working a total of 12 hours per day to produce 240 pieces of accessories. She thinks that by changing some materials that used for producing accessories that she can increase her rate to 360 pieces of accessories per day. Total material cost for each accessory is approximately $3.50; she has to invest $20 in the necessary supplies per day; energy costs are assumed to be only $4.00 per day; and she thinks she should be making $10 per hour for her time. Viewing this from a total multifactor productivity perspective.  (5.5 marks)What is her productivity at present and with the new change in material? Write the formula ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________What will be the percentage change in productivity?________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Toyota Motor Corporation 10 strategic decisions areas of operations management and productivity case study and analysis A 2009 Toyota Venza. The Toyota Way and the Toyota Production System address most of the 10 strategic decisions of operations management in all of the firm’s business areas. Toyota Motor Corporation’s operations management (OM) covers the 10 decisions for effective and efficient operations. With the global scale of its automobile business and facilities around the world, Toyota uses a wide set of strategies for the 10 decisions of operations management, integrating local and regional automotive market conditions. Toyota is an example of successful operations management at a global scale. These 10 decisions indicate the different areas of the business that require strategic approaches. Toyota also succeeds in emphasizing productivity in all of the 10 decisions of operations management  Toyota’s approaches for the 10 strategic decisions of operations management shows the importance of coordinated efforts for ensuring streamlined operations and high productivity at a global scale. Toyota’s Operations Management, 10 Strategic Decision Areas Design of Goods and Services. Toyota addresses this strategic decision area of operations management through technological advancement and quality. The company uses its R&D investments to ensure advanced features in its products. Toyota also integrates dealership personnel needs in designing aftersales services. 2. Quality Management. To maximize quality, the company uses its Toyota Production System (TPS). Quality is one of the key factors in TPS. Also, the firm addresses this strategic decision area of operations management through continuous improvement, which is covered in The Toyota Way, a set of management principles. 3. Process and Capacity Design. For this strategic decision area of operations management, Toyota uses lean manufacturing, which is also embodied in TPS. The company emphasizes waste minimization to maximize process efficiency and capacity utilization. Thus, Toyota supports business efficiency and cost-effectiveness in its process and capacity design. 4. Location Strategy. Toyota uses global, regional and local location strategies. For example, the company has localized manufacturing plants in the United States, China and Thailand, as well as official dealerships in all markets except Mongolia and some countries in the Middle East and Africa. Thus, Toyota addresses this strategic decision area of operations management through a mixed set of strategies. 5. Layout Design and Strategy. Layout design in Toyota’s manufacturing plants highlights the application of lean manufacturing principles. In this strategic decision area of operations management, the company aims for maximum efficiency of workflow. On the other hand, Toyota dealership layout design satisfies the company’s standards but also includes decisions from the dealers. 6. Job Design and Human Resources. The company applies The Toyota Way and TPS for this strategic decision area of operations management. The firm emphasizes respect for all people in The Toyota Way, and this is integrated in HR programs and policies. Also, Toyota has training programs based on TPS to ensure lean manufacturing practice. 7. Supply Chain Management. Toyota uses lean manufacturing for supply chain management. In this strategic decision area of operations management, the company uses automation systems for real-time adjustments in supply chain activity. In this way, Toyota minimizes the bullwhip effect in its supply chain. 8. Inventory Management. In addressing this strategic decision area of operations management, Toyota minimizes inventory levels through just-in-time inventory management. The aim is to minimize inventory size and its corresponding cost. This inventory management approach is covered in the Toyota Production System. 9. Scheduling. Toyota follows lean manufacturing principles in its scheduling. The company’s goal for this strategic decision area of operations management is to minimize operating costs. Cost-minimization is maintained through HR and resource scheduling that changes according to market conditions. 10. Maintenance. For decades, Toyota developed a network of strategically located facilities to support its global business. The company also has a global HR network that supports flexibility and business resilience. Thus, in this strategic decision area of operations management, Toyota uses its global business reach to ensure optimal and stable productivity.         Walmart 10 decisions of operations management, decision areas, productivity, case study and analysis A Walmart store in Clinton, Maryland. Walmart successfully applies and addresses the 10 decision areas of operations management for productivity.  Walmart’s operations management covers a variety of approaches that are focused on managing the supply chain and inventory, as well as sales performance. The company’s success is partly based on effective performance in operations management. Specifically, Walmart’s management covers all of the 10 decision areas of operations management. These decision areas pertain to the issues and concerns that managers face on a daily basis. Walmart’s application of the 10 decisions of operations management reflects managers’ prioritization of business objectives. In turn, this prioritization shows the strategic significance of the different decision areas of operations management in Walmart’s business.  The 10 decisions of operations management are effectively applied in Walmart’s business through a combination of approaches that emphasize supply chain management, inventory management, and sales and marketing.Walmart: Operations Management 10 Decision Areas 1. Design of Goods and Services. This decision area of operations management involves the strategic characterization of products. In the case of Walmart, this decision area covers goods and services. As a retailer, the company offers retail service. However, Walmart also has its own brands of goods, such as Great Value and Sam’s Choice. The company’s operations management addresses the design of retail service by emphasizing the variables of efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Walmart is known for low costs because of its cost leadership generic strategy. To fulfill this strategy, the firm focuses on maximum efficiency of its retail service personnel. To address the design of goods in this decision area of operations management, Walmart also emphasizes minimal production costs, especially for the Great Value brand. For example, the firm’s goods are designed in such a way that they are easy to mass-produce.  2. Quality Management. This decision area of operations management is applied at Walmart through three tiers of quality standards. The lower tier specifies minimum quality expectations of the majority of customers. Walmart keeps this lower tier for most of its brands, such as Great Value. The middle tier specifies market average quality for low-cost retailers. This tier is applied for the performance of Walmart employees, especially sales personnel. The upper tier specifies quality levels that exceed market averages. This tier is applied to only a minority of Walmart’s outputs, such as goods under the Sam’s Choice brand. The firm addresses the decision area of operations management for quality management through this three-tier approach that ensures suitable quality in different areas of Walmart’s organization. 3. Process and Capacity Design. Walmart addresses this decision area of operations management through behavioral analysis, forecasting, and continuous monitoring. Behavioral analysis of customers and employees, such as in the stores, serves as basis for Walmart’s process and capacity design of store processes and capacity, personnel and equipment. Forecasting is the basis for the firm’s ever-changing capacity design for human resources. Walmart’s HR process and capacity design evolves as the business grows. Also, to satisfy concerns in this decision area of operations management, the company uses continuous monitoring. Continuous monitoring of store capacities informs Walmart’s corporate managers to keep or change current designs. 4. Location Strategy. This decision area of operations management emphasizes efficiency of movement of materials, human resources and business information throughout the organization. In this regard, Walmart’s location strategy includes stores located in or near urban centers. The company’s aim is to maximize market reach. Materials and goods are made available to the company’s target consumers through strategic warehouse locations. To address the business information aspect in this decision area of operations management, Walmart uses the Internet. The company has a comprehensive set of online information systems for real-time reports and monitoring. Thus, Walmart’s main concern in this decision area is on the location of stores and related facilities. 5. Layout Design and Strategy. To address this decision area of operations management, Walmart uses shoppers’ behaviors for the layout design of its stores. The layout design of individual stores is based on consumer behavioral analysis and corporate standards. For example, Walmart’s placement of some goods in certain areas of its stores, such as near the entrance/exit, is based on this behavioral analysis of shoppers. On the other hand, the layout design and strategy for the company’s warehouses are based on the need to rapidly move goods across the supply chain to the stores. Walmart’s warehouses have adequate space allocation for the company’s trucks, suppliers’ trucks, and goods. With efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and cost-minimization, the firm satisfies needs in this decision area of operations management. 6. Human Resources and Job Design. Walmart’s human resource management strategies involve continuous recruitment. The company suffers from relatively high turnover because of low wages, which relate to the cost-leadership generic strategy. Nonetheless, continuous recruitment enables Walmart to address this decision area of operations management. Also, the firm maintains standardized job processes, especially for positions in the stores. Walmart’s training programs support the need for standardization and service quality standards of the business. Thus, the firm satisfies concerns in this decision area of operations management even though there are some issues with turnover. (Main article: Walmart: Human Resource Management) 7. Supply Chain Management. Walmart’s use of information technology and bargaining power over suppliers successfully addresses this decision area of operations management. The company’s supply chain is comprehensively integrated with advanced information technology. Supply chain management information systems are directly linked to Walmart’s ability to minimize costs of operations. These systems enable managers and vendors to collaborate in deciding when to move certain amounts of merchandise across the supply chain. Walmart’s operations management approaches also include wielding the company’s strong bargaining power. Because it is the largest retailer in the world, Walmart influences suppliers to cooperate in using these systems. 8. Inventory Management. In this decision area of operations management, Walmart’s inventory management involves the vendor-managed inventory model and just-in-time cross-docking. In the vendor-managed inventory model, the suppliers access Walmart’s information systems to decide when to deliver goods based on real-time data on inventory levels. In this way, the company minimizes stockouts. On the other hand, in just-in-time cross-docking, Walmart minimizes the size of its inventory, thereby also supporting the firm’s cost-minimization efforts. Such approaches help maximize the company’s performance in this decision area of operations management. (Main article: Walmart: Inventory Management) 9. Scheduling. Walmart uses conventional shifts and flexible scheduling. In this decision area of operations management, the emphasis is on optimizing internal business process schedules. Through optimized schedules, the company can expect minimal losses linked to excess capacity and related issues. At Walmart, scheduling in warehouses is flexible and based on current trends. For example, based on the company’s approaches to inventory management and supply chain management, suppliers readily respond to changes in inventory levels. As a result, most of Walmart’s warehouse schedules are not fixed. However, the company generally has fixed conventional shifts for scheduling of store processes and human resources in sales and marketing. Such fixed scheduling is needed to optimize human resource expenditure. Still, to fully address this decision area of operations management, Walmart occasionally changes store and personnel schedules to address anticipated changes in demand, such as during Black Friday. 10. Maintenance. In addressing maintenance needs, managers must consider maintaining different types of resources. Walmart effectively addresses this decision area of operations management through training programs to maintain human resources, dedicated personnel for facility maintenance, and dedicated personnel for equipment maintenance. The company’s human resource management provides training programs to ensure that employees are effective and efficient. Walmart’s dedicated personnel for facility maintenance keep all the firm’s buildings in shape. In relation, the dedicated personnel for equipment maintenance fix, repair, and clean equipment like cash registers, computers, cleaning equipment, and others. This combination of maintenance approaches contributes to Walmart’s effectiveness in satisfying concerns in this decision area of operations management.


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