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February 23, 2021
Final Communications Essay
February 23, 2021

The Inflammatory Process

Most individuals recognize inflammation as a common physiological response to a cut or a bruise. Inflammation, however, is not limited to injuries. It can occur anytime there is a problem within the body such as the invasion of a foreign body or a cell mutation. In response to these occurrences, the inflammatory process activates a variety of immune factors such as T-cells, B-cells, cytokines, and chemokines among others. How might these cells assist in the inflammatory process to facilitate healing?

For this Discussion, review this week’s Learning Resources. Reflect on the role cytokines have in the immune response. Then, select an immune factor from the following list:

  • T-cells
  • B-cells
  • Complement proteins
  • Chemokines
  • Neutrophils
  • Bradykinins
  • Granulocytes
  • Monocytes
  • Immunoglobulins

Finally, consider how these cells are involved in inflammation.

With these thoughts in mind:

Post by Day 4 a brief explanation of the role of cytokines in the inflammatory response. Then, describe the immune factor you selected and explain its role in the inflammation process. Finally, explain how a health psychology professional might educate a population on the beneficial and detrimental impact of inflammation on wellness.

Be sure to support your posts and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources.


  • Abbas, A. K., Lichtman, A. H. & Pillai, S. (2016). Basic immunology: Functions and disorders of the immune system (5th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.
    • Chapter 5, “T-Cell-Mediated Immunity” (pp. 103-126)
    • Chapter 6, “Effector Mechanisms of T-Cell-Mediated Immunity” (pp. 129-146)
    • Chapter 7, “Humoral Immune Responses” (pp. 147-167)
  • Kendall-Tackett, K. (Ed.). (2010). The psychoneuroimmunology of chronic disease: Exploring the links between inflammation, stress, and illness. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    • Chapter 2, “Inflammation, Fatty Acid Oxidation, and Neurodegenerative Disease” (pp. 23–52)
    • Chapter 4, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, Inflammation, and Inflammatory Diseases” (pp. 77–110)
  • Haroon, E., Raison, C. L., & Miller, A. H. (2012). Psychoneuroimmunology meets neuropsychopharmacology: Translational implications of the impact of inflammation on behavior. Neuropsychopharmocology Reviews, 37(1), 137–162.
    Copyright 2012 by NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP (PERMISSIONS). Reprinted by permission of NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP (PERMISSIONS) via the Copyright Clearance Center.
  • O’Malley, D., Quigley, E. M. M., Dinan, T. G., & Cryan, J. F. (2011). Do interactions between stress and immune responses lead to symptom exacerbations in irritable bowel syndrome? Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 25(7), 1333–1341.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
  • Wilson, D. R., & Warise, L. (2008). Cytokines and their role in depression. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 44(4), 285–289.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
  • American Heart Association. (2012). Inflammation and heart disease. Retrieved from
  • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2012). What is asthma? Retrieved from:

Optional Resources

  • Rance, K., & O’Laughlen, M. (2011). Obesity and asthma: A dangerous link in children: An integrative review of the literature. Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 7(4), 287–292.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
  • Agricultural Research Service. (2009). Inflammation and you: How foods from plants protect us from disease. Retrieved from
  • National Cancer Institute. (2012). Acupuncture (PDQ®): Questions and answers about acupuncture. Retrieved from
  • National Institutes of Health. (2007). Tai Chi boosts immunity to shingles virus in older adults, NIH-sponsored study reports. Retrieved from
  • Pace, T. W. W., Negi, L. T., Adame, D. D., Cole, S. P., Sivilli, T. I., Brown, T. D., Raison, C. L. (2009). Effect of compassion meditation on neuroendocrine, innate immune, and behavioral responses to psychosocial stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 34(1), 87–98. Retrieved from

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Walden University Cytokines and ?Inflammatory Process Discussion was first posted on February 23, 2021 at 7:31 am.
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