Write an essay for each prompt:
1. Which cardiorespiratory parameters change during the transition from rest to exercise, and which of these can exhibit plasticity due to aerobic training?
In your answer, you should include terms and processes such as gas transport cascade, VO2,ventilation, tidal volume, total pulmonary ventilation, alveolar ventilation, dead space, PAO2, diffusion, hemoglobin, Hb-O2 dissociation curve, Hb-O2 affinity, hematocrit, blood oxygen carrying capacity, cardiac output, heart rate, pacemaker cells, SA node, funny channels, stroke volume, Frank-Starling mechanism, contractility, cardiac hypertrophy, preload, afterload, total peripheral resistance, and arteriovenous O2 difference.
2. Aortic valve stenosis is a hardening of the aortic valve which makes it difficult to eject blood from the left ventricle. What effect does this have on the normal electrical and/or pressure events of the cardiac cycle?
In your answer, you should include terms and processes such as right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary valve, pulmonary circulation, left atrium, bicuspid valve, left ventricle, aortic valve, systemic circulation, systole, diastole, ventricular systole/diastole, atrial systole/diastole, passive ventricular filling, â€œatrial kick,â€ isovolumic ventricular contraction, ventricular ejection, isovolumic relaxation, stroke volume, preload, afterload, pressure-volume loop, and physiologic vs. pathogenic cardiac hypertrophy.
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